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Hosuk Lee-Makiyama

Email: hosuk.lee-makiyama@ecipe.org

Office: +32 (0)2 289 1350 Mobile: +32 (0)499 694 249

Follow on: Twitter


Areas of Expertise: European Union EU Trade Agreements EU Single Market Trade Defence Healthcare Services Digital Economy WTO and Globalization Far-East North-America Russia & Eurasia South Asia & Oceania

Hosuk Lee-Makiyama

Hosuk Lee-Makiyama is the director of European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE) and a leading author on trade diplomacy, EU-Far East relations and the digital economy.

He is regularly consulted by governments and international organisations on a range of issues, from trade negotiations to economic reforms. He appears regularly in European, Chinese and US media, and is noted for his involvement in WTO and major free trade agreements. He was also named “One of the 20 most influential people for open internet” by the readers of the Guardian UK in 2012. He was the first author to argue for a WTO case on internet censorship in China.

Prior to joining ECIPE, he was an independent counsel on regulatory affairs, competition and communication, Senior Advisor at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, representative of Sweden and the EU member states towards the WTO and the UN, including WIPO and UNECE. Lee-Makiyama is also a Fellow at the department International Relations at the London School of Economics, and currently shares his time between LSE and ECIPE.

  • ECIPE Policy Briefs

    Subsidising Balkanisation: What China’s 3G Subsidies Teach us about 5G Open RAN

    By: Hosuk Lee-Makiyama 

    Open RAN is increasingly becoming the answer to how to diversify 5G networks and beyond, especially in the light of a potential exclusion of China’s participation in western networks. In recent times, the US and Japan have jointly pledged $4.5 billion to support its development. Much – or perhaps entirety – of this support is predesignated for the O-RAN Alliance, a closed-door and private industry consortium. State interventionism is back – in a sector...

  • ECIPE Policy Briefs

    The EU Green Deal and Its Industrial and Political Significance

    By: Hosuk Lee-Makiyama 

    The European Green Deal, the flagship initiative of the incumbent European Commission, aims to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 55% by 2030 (from the current target of cutting 40% of 1990 levels) by overhauling fiscal, trading and regulatory regimes. Brussels is well-placed to deliver the interregional distribution or the minutiae of technical regulations that this challenge calls for. Energy diversification is also central to EU competitiveness and strategic...

  • ECIPE Occasional Papers

    Economic Costs of Ex ante Regulations

    By: Hosuk Lee-Makiyama Badri Narayanan Gopalakrishnan 

    Regulations are an indispensable part of an economy and are proven to generate a significant impact on the economic, environment and social landscape. Through an extensive survey of literature and empirical study, the paper contrasts the benefits and costs arising in the light of the imposition of ex ante regulations of attempting to regulate a market sector, before a market failure has even occurred. It diverges from the norm of regulating ex-post, i.e. addressing...

  • ECIPE Policy Briefs

    Open RAN: The Technology, its Politics and Europe’s Response

    By: Hosuk Lee-Makiyama Florian Forsthuber 

    This policy brief explores the implications of Open RAN concept and its technical and political developments in the mobile network industry. Open RAN is not necessarily a new technology in itself, but represents a combination of existing technologies, e.g. virtualisation, AI, commercial off-the-shelf parts and open interfaces. Its proponents promise more secure networks without ‘high-risk vendors’ but Open RAN could introduce new systemic risks that...

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