'Europe is not overly dependent on the rest of the world because most trade in the EU is done within its own border… https://t.co/hHaxG040cWRT Renatte Georgescu @RenatteG: So wait, international trade is a strength, globalization makes the EU more resilient and no country alone can be s… https://t.co/Vuc5L0ur8R'China never really had a foreign policy,' @leemakiyama @politico on Chinese diplomacy. 📰https://t.co/vFgJPxIhmQRT Justin Brown 🇦🇺 @AusEmBrussels: Valuable research from @ecipe @osguinea @flo_forst demonstrating what we 🇦🇺 have concluded - that diverse internati… https://t.co/hbx5OzfU77RT Sabine Weyand @WeyandSabine: Came for the🍿, stayed for the content: « This paper debunks the idea that the EU is too reliant on other countries.… https://t.co/onSuqAowaS

Hosuk Lee-Makiyama

Email: hosuk.lee-makiyama@ecipe.org

Office: +32 (0)2 289 1350 Mobile: +32 (0)499 694 249

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Areas of Expertise: European Union EU Trade Agreements EU Single Market Trade Defence Healthcare Services Digital Economy WTO and Globalization Far-East North-America Russia & Eurasia South Asia & Oceania

Hosuk Lee-Makiyama

Hosuk Lee-Makiyama is the director of European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE) and a leading author on trade diplomacy, EU-Far East relations and the digital economy.

He is regularly consulted by governments and international organisations on a range of issues, from trade negotiations to economic reforms. He appears regularly in European, Chinese and US media, and is noted for his involvement in WTO and major free trade agreements. He was also named “One of the 20 most influential people for open internet” by the readers of the Guardian UK in 2012. He was the first author to argue for a WTO case on internet censorship in China.

Prior to joining ECIPE, he was an independent counsel on regulatory affairs, competition and communication, Senior Advisor at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, representative of Sweden and the EU member states towards the WTO and the UN, including WIPO and UNECE. Lee-Makiyama is also a Fellow at the department International Relations at the London School of Economics, and currently shares his time between LSE and ECIPE.

  • ECIPE Policy Briefs

    The Economic Losses from Ending the WTO Moratorium on Electronic Transmissions

    By: Hosuk Lee-Makiyama Guest Author 

    This paper is co-authored with Badri Narayanan, PhD, Associate Professor at University of Washington, Consultant at McKinsey Global Institute, UN ESCWA, FAO, Commonwealth Secretariat and GTAP Research Centre. Background Since 1998, the WTO Members have applied a moratorium against tariffs on international electronic transmissions (commonly referred to as the WTO ‘E-Commerce’ Moratorium). However, some WTO Members have recently debated whether the...

  • ECIPE Policy Briefs

    Europe and South-East Asia: Shifting from Diplomacy to Unilateralism

    By: Hanna Deringer Hosuk Lee-Makiyama Danny Murty 

    • The postponement of the planned ‘strategic partnership' between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the EU highlights deep concerns and divisions for opening up in the relationship. The EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and Investment Partnership Agreement (IPA), stand alone as a success for EU-ASEAN trade relations, in an otherwise troubled landscape. Bilateral trade agreements with Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand remain...

  • ECIPE Policy Briefs

    The EU-Japan EPA – Freer, Fairer and more Open Trading System

    By: Hosuk Lee-Makiyama Alice Poidevin 

    In the context of the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement soon to be concluded by both parties, ECIPE organized a high-level conference to discuss the economic benefits and social dimensions of this agreement. It is an important agreement for both sides, but also comes at a time when the principles and practice of the open and rules-based trading system are stressed. The conference reflected stakeholders’ positions on what new trade opportunities will this...

  • ECIPE Occasional Papers

    The Cost of Fiscal Unilateralism: Potential Retaliation Against the EU Digital Services Tax (DST)

    By: Hosuk Lee-Makiyama 

    The EU is proposing a digital services tax (DST) to tax certain so-called ‘digital companies’, which it alleges access the Single Market while paying ‘minimal amounts of tax to our treasuries’. But like all exporters, these firms pay the majority of their taxes where their product development takes place, and services are designed and implemented. The EU has singled out certain revenue streams, as it claims they have a high reliance on intangibles and...

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